Urological Conditions


Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy

Benign prostatic hypertrophy – also called benign prostatic hyperplasia, BPH or an enlarged prostate – is a non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland, which produces ejaculatory fluid. The condition may cause urinary incontinence, pain during urination, inability to urinate or a sensation of "incomplete emptying" of the bladder. BPH is experienced by almost all men to some degree as they age and can be treated with medication or surgery.

Bladder Carcinoma (Bladder Cancer)

Bladder carcinoma (or bladder cancer) refers to a malignant cancer of the tissues of the urinary bladder. Blood in the urine, frequent urinary urges and pain during urination are common symptoms of bladder cancer.

Bladder Stones

Bladder stones are small, hard build-ups of minerals that form in the bladder that are often caused by very concentrated urine or foreign objects in the bladder. Bladder stones may cause abdominal pain, difficulty urinating, blood in the urine and frequent urges to urinate. The stones can be passed on their own with increased fluid intake or may be removed by a doctor.

Blood in Urine

Blood in the urine (hematuria) is a serious condition that should always be treated by a doctor. Common causes include kidney or bladder stones, kidney failure, renal cell carcinoma (kidney cancer), kidney or bladder infection, injury or a blood clot in the kidneys.

Learn more about blood in the urine

Cloudy Urine

Cloudy urine can indicate a number of medical problems such as a urinary tract infection or the presence of bacteria, blood cells, mucus or phosphates in the urine. Cloudy or abnormally colored urine that cannot be explained by a food or drug should be treated by a doctor.

Learn more about cloudy urine

Cyst

A kidney cyst (renal cyst) is a small, fluid-filled pouch that develops inside the small tubes within the kidney. Simple kidney cysts are common, often not harmful and may not cause symptoms. However, cysts may become infected or begin to bleed and require treatment.

Cystitis

Cystitis – often referred to as interstitial cystitis or painful bladder syndrome – is a series of uncomfortable urinary symptoms of unknown cause. Cystitis patients may experience pain, discomfort or pressure in the pelvic region and frequent urges to urinate. Treatment may involve medication, bladder training, physical therapy or sometimes surgery.

Epididymitis

Epididymitis is an inflammation of the epididymis, the tube connecting the testicle with the vas deferens that sperm pass through. Most commonly caused by an infection spread from the urethra or bladder, epididymitis can cause fever, chills, pain, a lump in the testicle and painful ejaculation. The condition is typically treated with medication.

Erectile Dysfunction (ED)

Erectile dysfunction – also called ED or male impotence – refers to an inability to achieve an erection or maintain one long enough for sexual intercourse. ED is somewhat common in older men and typically has a physical cause, such as medication, injury or an underlying disease; however, impotence can also have a psychological origin. Treatment may depend on the cause and could involve medication, therapy, various devices or surgery.

Frequent Urination

Frequent urination refers to frequent need to empty one's bladder and can indicate a number of medical conditions such as an enlarged prostate, cystitis, prostatitis, bladder cancer, overactive bladder, a tumor or mass in the pelvis, anxiety or stroke.

Learn more about frequent urination

Infertility

Infertility (or sterility) refers to an individual's inability to conceive a child. In men, infertility is most commonly caused by disorders of the sperm such as underdeveloped sperm, abnormally developed sperm or a low sperm count. It may also be caused by dilated scrotal veins called varicoceles, ejaculatory problems, hormones, medications or genetic conditions. Surgery or medications can sometimes treat male infertility, and treatments like in-vitro fertilization may be used to conceive.

Inguinal Hernia

In an inguinal hernia, the intra-abdominal fat of the patient's small intestine begins to bulge through a weak spot in the lower abdominal muscles, causing pressure, pain and discomfort in the groin. An inguinal hernia is typically caused by sudden twisting or straining while lifting a heavy object and can be corrected surgically.

Kidney Disease

The term kidney disease (or renal disease) refers to a number of medical conditions affecting kidney function such as diabetes, high blood pressure, kidney failure, renal cell carcinoma (kidney cancer), kidney stones, lupus, infection and injury. As patients begin to lose kidney function, wastes build up in the blood and cause anemia, loss of appetite, trouble sleeping, lack of energy and a frequent need to urinate.

Kidney Infection

A kidney infection is a bacterial infection of the kidneys often spread from an infection of the bladder or caused by catheter use, urinary tract surgery, kidney stones or an enlarged prostate. Symptoms may include back or groin pain, urgent or frequent urination, pain during urination, fever and blood in the urine. A kidney infection is usually treated with antibiotics, though severely ill patients may require hospitalization.

Kidney Pain

Kidney pain is often felt in the back or flank and can have a number of medical causes, including kidney infection, urinary tract infection, renal cell carcinoma (kidney cancer), atherosclerosis (hardened arteries) of the kidney, polycystic kidney disease or bleeding in the kidney. Kidney pain is not caused by kidney stones and should be treated by a doctor if it presents with fever, body aches or blood in the urine.

Learn more about kidney pain

Kidney Stone

A kidney stone (nephrolithiasis) is a small, hard mass of crystallized minerals that forms in the kidneys. Kidney stones may be caused by a metabolic disorder, high calcium levels, urinary tract infections or diuretics. Though the stones can cause extreme pain and cramping in the back and side, increased fluid intake will allow most stones to pass on their own.

Leanr more about kidney stones

Low Sperm Count

Low sperm count – medically defined as having fewer than 20 million sperm per milliliter of semen – is a leading cause of infertility. Laboratory tests can determine sperm count, and a number of medical conditions and lifestyle factors can contribute to a low sperm count.

Microhematuria

Microhematuria is unseen blood in urine. This term is a shortened version of microscopic hematuria. It is normal for urine to have very small amounts of blood in it. However there are standards that can, either in a laboratory or in the doctor's office with a dipstick, distinguish between a normal number of blood cells and an abnormal number of blood cells.

Learn more about microhematuria

Overactive Bladder

Overactive bladder is a condition that causes frequent, sudden and unstoppable urges to urinate during the day and night. The condition is caused by spasms of the muscles in the wall of the bladder and is more common in women of middle age than in men. Overactive bladder can be treated with Kegel exercises to strengthen pelvic muscles, behavioral training and medication.

Phimosis

Phimosis is a congenital abnormality of the foreskin covering the head of the penis, causing it to contract and preventing it from retracting over the head of the penis. This can interfere with the flow of urine and may be treated surgically.

Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer is a cancer that forms in tissues of the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. Prostate cancer usually occurs in older men and may or may not cause symptoms. Common symptoms include problems urinating, difficulty getting an erection and elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Treatment options include active monitoring, surgery, radiation therapy, hormone therapy or a combination of these.

Learn more about prostate cancer

Prostatitis

Prostatitis is a rapidly-developing inflammation or infection of the prostate gland usually caused by bacterial infections such as urinary tract infections or sexually transmitted infections. Symptoms may include pain in the abdomen and lower back, painful ejaculation or urination, fever, chills and blood in the urine. Prostatitis can be treated with medication, but acute cases may require surgery.

Learn more about prostatitis

Renal Cell Carcinoma (RCC)

Renal cell carcinoma (or RCC) is a cancer found in the lining of the small tubules inside the kidney. RCC is most often diagnosed in men between the ages of 50 and 70 and has been linked to smoking, dialysis treatment, genetics and family history. Symptoms may include back and abdominal pain, weight loss, constipation, cold intolerance, enlargement of the veins around the testicles and blood in the urine.

Renal Failure

Renal failure – also called kidney failure – results when the kidneys are unable to filter waste products from the blood, causing wastes to build up in the body. This leads to high blood pressure, excess fluid retention and anemia, and must be treated with dialysis or a kidney transplant.

Stone Disease

Stone disease – also called kidney stone disease – is a disease in which calcium deposits and forms hard "stones" within the kidneys. The stones often cause pain, nausea, frequent urination and a burning during urination. The stones must be passed through the ureters and out the urethra, which can be assisted with increased fluid intake. Inadequate fluid intake is known to increase risk of developing stone disease.

Testicular Pain

Testicular pain is a pain or discomfort in one or both of the testicles often caused by injury, infection, inflammation or a "twisting" of the testicles called testicular torsion. Men who experience pain in the testicles that radiates up to the abdomen should be examined by a doctor.

Urethritis

Urethritis is an inflammation of the urethra often caused by a urinary tract infection, sexually transmitted infection, injury, or sensitivity to a spermicide or sexual lubricant. Symptoms may include pain during urination, blood in the urine, frequent or urgent urination, or discharge. Individuals who engage in high-risk sexual practices or who have many sexual partners are at a higher risk for urethritis and can treat the inflammation with preventative measures and medication.

Urinary Incontinence

Urinary incontinence is the accidental release of urine. In men, this can be due to nerve problems or prostate problems and may be treated with behavioral modification, Kiegel exercises, medication, or surgery.

Learn more about the types of urinary incontinence.

Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)

A urinary tract infection – also called a UTI or a bladder infection – is an infection of the urinary tract caused by bacteria. Symptoms may include pain during urination, cloudy or murky urine, frequent urinary urges and difficulty passing urine. If left untreated, a UTI can spread to the kidneys and cause serious health problems.

Find out more about Recurring Urinary Tract Infections: Your Questions Answered.

Varicocele

A varicocele is a widening of the veins along the spermatic cord, the cord that holds up a man's testicles. This occurs when valves inside the veins inhibit blood flow causing infertility, discomfort or enlarged and twisted veins. Varicoceles occur more frequently in men ages 15-25, and scrotal support devices or surgery can ease symptoms.

Voiding Dysfunction

Voiding dysfunction refers to an inability to empty the bladder. This occurs most commonly in men over the age of 50 experiencing prostate enlargement. Voiding dysfunction may also be caused by infection, certain medications, constipation or as a complication from surgery. A catheter can provide relief, and the course of treatment may depend on the underlying cause.

 

Urological Treatments

 

Enlarged Prostate Treatment

Prostate enlargement solutions are addressed with lifestyle changes, prescribed medicine, alternative medicine or home remedies, minimally invasive procedures and prostate removal surgeries.

Learn more about enlarged prostate treatments.

Green Light Laser

Green light laser surgery – also called prostate laser surgery – is used to vaporize prostate tissue that blocks urine from exiting the bladder. Prostate enlargement, technically called benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or benign prostatic hypertrophy, is the main cause of frequent urination in men.

Learn more about green light laser treatments

Kidney Stone Treatment

Kidney stone treatment incorporates diagnosing the size, location and composition of the renal stone, pain management, kidney stone removal and preventing future kidney stones from reoccurring.

Learn more about kidney stone treatments.

Prostate Cancer Treatment

There are many treatment options available for men with prostate cancer. These include active monitoring, surgery, radiation therapy, hormone therapy or a combination of these.

Learn more about prostate cancer treatment.

Prostate Removal

Prostate removal includes both prostate cancer surgery, such as the minimally invasive surgery called da Vinci prostatectomy, and enlarged prostate treatment, such as the minimally invasive transurethral resection of the prostate and the green light laser that alleviates urinary frequency. When prostate cancer is found, men have several choices to make: they can destroy, remove, slow down or monitor the growth of the prostate cancer.

Learn more about prostate removal and the da Vinci prostatectomy.

Robotic Surgery

Robotic surgery is an effective, minimally invasive option for a number of conditions, including bladder cancer, renal cell carcinoma (kidney cancer) and prostate cancer.

Learn more about minimally invasive robotic surgery

Urinary Incontinence, Overactive Bladder and Voiding Dysfunction Solutions

There are many options available to treat incontinence, depending on the cause of your incontinence, overactive bladder or voiding dysfunction. Behavioral training, lifestyle changes, pelvic floor exercises and medicines are usually tried first. If the problem does not resolve, your doctor may recommend medical devices, injections or surgery.

Learn more about urinary incontinence solutions.


 

Urological Symptoms

See a urologist for any of these symptoms:

  • Blood in urine
  • Cloudy urine
  • Elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA)
  • Frequent urination (or urge to urinate)
  • Kidney pain
  • Leakage of urine
  • Lump in the scrotom
  • Pain during urination
  • Premature ejaculation
  • Slow urinary stream
  • Testicular pain
  • Trouble achieving or sustaining an erection